â€œThe Last Supperâ€ found on page 101 is Leonardo da Vinciâ€™s masterpiece created using tempera on pitch, gesso and mastic as medium. The subject matter of the painting, as the title suggests, is the last meal of Jesus Christ together with his twelve apostles. â€œThe Last Supperâ€, strikes its audience with an instant depiction of the momentous scene where (through John) Jesus states, â€œTruly, truly, I say to you, one of you will betray meâ€. The last supper or the meal is characterized by the presence of leavened bread, fish, herb and wine. In addition to this, there are twelve glasses and several plates present; all made from metal that untypically portray the supper of conservative Jews. All the items found in the table or supper are nonobjective arts; they do not represent any other objects. â€œThe Last Supperâ€ presents a pyramidal composition, where an impression of stability is presented to the audience. Twelve models representing the twelve apostles are divided into groups of three, each having distinct expressive characteristics. Bartholomew, James (the younger) and Andrew, found on the left side of the table, shows expressions of fear or horrification. Andrew provides the most expressive reaction as he holds his hands up, as if expressing a gesture of â€œletâ€™s calm downâ€. Judas, Peter and John form the next group, where Judasâ€™ face is in shadow while cunningly holding a small bag which represents money or his betrayal. Furthermore, both Judas and Jesus reached for bread at the same time. On the other hand, Peter clutches a knife which is pointed away from the back of Judas while his other hand is placed on Johnâ€™s shoulder. It seems like Peter is asking John, who in return leans towards him, â€œWho does he say it is? â€ In â€œThe Last Supperâ€, John is represented by an effeminate model or character due to his modest nature. Christ on the other hand, who is the only calm individual in the scene, is located on the center, serving as the center of balance between the groups of apostles who are in turmoil. Three windows are behind him, where the biggest is placed directly behind him, which may represent a halo. Four doors with varied sizes are placed on each side which gives an impression of space or point of view. Thomas, James (brother of Jesus) and Philip are seen next to Jesus. Thomas who is pointing upward seems to doubt the announcement of Jesus. His other hand is placed on the table between the two apostles as if looking for solid evidence. James and Philip are stunned. James is observed to be looking at the left of hand of Jesus while Philip looked like asking, â€œIs it me? â€ Matthew, Thaddeus and Simon, the last group, all looked surprised or startled. Matthew and Thaddeus seem to be asking Simon about the announcement, who in return answers with his hands showing a gesture of â€œI donâ€™t knowâ€. Contrary to Leonardo da Vinciâ€™s â€œThe Last Supperâ€ is Rembrandtâ€™s â€œThree Crossesâ€ created using drypoint and burin technique which can be found in page 78. Due to the technique used by Rembrandt (with an emphasis on using lines), the print is black and white. By engaging on the colors used, a feeling or atmosphere of stark and harsh can be felt. This is an effective method especially since the subject matter is the dramatic death of Jesus Christ on the cross at Golgotha. Moreover, it is the narrative representation of â€œdarkness covered the earthâ€, an account of the Crucifixion made by St. Luke. The colors or technique emphasizes on the representation of violence, sadness and hope during the said event. Black represents the dark, evil, lack of wisdom or ignorance. Black served as the background, as if representing how darkness covered the earth. On the other hand, white represents light, the sacrifice of Jesus to save mankind or removal of darkness through Christ. The lines provide emphasis to the light which shined on Jesus Christ and the two murders. Moreover, the light seems to be descending from the heavens or from one light source because of the lines. On the contrary, â€œThe Last Supperâ€ and â€œThree Crossesâ€ are similar, in the sense that both shows confusion among the crowd or apostles and Jesus Christ is the center or cause. Reference â€œArt as an Expressionâ€. (2008) Retrieved June 1, 2008.
Observation Paper Essay
Conformity is behavior change designed to match the actions of others. During my research, I found many examples of conformitive behavior. I often related conformity to adolescents due to the fact that they usually do their best to try and fit in when it comes to group settings. This type of behavior can be seen in college students attending educational facilities away from home. Those that are in dorms tend to indulge in drinking even if they arenâ€™t â€œbig drinkersâ€.
They do this to conform to that of others and to be included in the fun and try and fit in. One last example that I will discuss prior to getting into my own observation, was the study that was done my Crandall in 1988 which examined normative social influences involving bulimia in college sororities. Sororities are the true definition of conformity and those that donâ€™t conform are usually not allowed to continue to pledge.
In the particular sororities that were examined, Crandall found that it had its own norm when it came to the â€œrightâ€ amount of food to eat and the popularity within the sorority was associated with adhering to this norm. Those that wanted to be a part of the sororities needed to conform to the â€œnormâ€ and fell into a bulimic state. These girls had to of known this was not healthy for them yet they wanted to continue to become of part of this group and follow the â€œnormâ€ that was set out. To me, this is just ridiculous. Some of us have issues with conforming and I believe Iâ€™m one of those people.
The observation that I decided to conduct was that of a military setting. I decided to do this based on the fact that when I was in the military, there were times when I struggled with those appointed over me because I knew the tasks that they were giving me were wrong. I wasnâ€™t willing to conform when I knew it wasnâ€™t right. This is where my â€œissueâ€ with authority came into play. The military is one of, if not the largest, organization that requires conformity to the fullest. Those that donâ€™t conform will be punished. During my reading I found a Japanese saying that really hit close to home.
â€œThe nail that sticks up gets hammered downâ€. What that means to me is that itâ€™s better to not stand out in the group but rather conform and fall amongst them. Prior to the start of my observation, I had a background of the military setting so I guess we could call that an unfair advantage because maybe I didnâ€™t go into this assignment with open-mindedness. I had the assumed idea that those being observed wouldÂ conform to the standards set forth by the military official in charge of them regardless if they thought that it was right/wrong.
I envisioned that normative pressure would come into play since those that are in authoritative position are respected and looked up to. So, in order to support my assumption, I decided to have my wife, who is currently active duty and a Division Officer, assist me. She didnâ€™t do this by choice, but I had her conform ïŠ I asked her to give personnel in her division orders that they would know were wrong. For instance, she gave three separate Sailors (2-E3, 1-E4) direction to go to McDonaldâ€™s to get her something to eat while in a duty status.
Then, she briefed all of them at duty section muster that no one was authorized to leave the confines of the ship on their duty for any reason to include going to get something to eat. They all were aware this wasnâ€™t allowed but being that she told them, they thought that it must be right. There was no questioning attitude, just a â€œyes Maâ€™amâ€ by every single one. I wanted her to take it one step further so I asked her to do something that would affect the safety of Sailors and see how they responded. Would they conform? So, all her Sailors are required to wear protective head gear and glasses due to the dry dock environment and the hazards associated. She went to quarters and directed them all to come back tomorrow with only their hard hats. She stated glasses were no longer required.
Not one person said anything when she gave this information out. No one questioned her but simply just went on about their days. The next day, over 75% of her personnel showed up without glasses. This was clearly a safety violation and could potentially have an impact on their individual safety but because she was an authoritative figure, they accepted that risk and conformed to what she stated. It wasnâ€™t right but they did it anyway.
After it was completed, she let them know that it was ok to question things that you thought werenâ€™t right. She informed them about the study and stated that she was surprised so many had not followed their instincts and did the right thing. I wasnâ€™t quite so shocked by the results. I saw a lot of Sailors do things that arenâ€™t necessarily right because someone higher ranking told them and instead of questioning them, and possibly getting in trouble, they just did it. So, the results she got didnâ€™t surprise me. In the military, itâ€™s like the unspoken ruleâ€¦just conform. Overall, this study was exactly what I thought it was going to be.
In manyÂ situations, we are uncertain how to think or act/react to those around us especially when itâ€™s not the socially accepted â€œnormâ€. We tend to use the behavior and actions of others to dictate what were going to do. Informational social influence occurs because we conform using others as a source of information. Thatâ€™s exactly what happened in my observation. No one stood up and said it was wrong so being that my wife told them it was right (she was the source of information), they did it! Was it right, no! This is where I think change needs to happen. Stand up for what you believe.
Donâ€™t just be rebellious because you can but have a reason and stand by it. Find people who believe in the same thing that you believe in and take a stance. Her Sailors should have confided in one another and they all should have worn their glasses to muster knowing that it was their safety that they were protecting. All of them should have stood up to protect themselves!
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.